A. THE MUNICIPALITY OF ANO LIOSSIA B. A VARIETY OF PLACES MAKE "ANO LIOSSIA" WORTH SEEING C. A FLASHBACK ON THE HISTORY OF "ANO LIOSSIA" MUNICIPALITY 1. In the Anclent Times 2. The Wall 3. From the Ancient Times till the End of Frankish rule 4. Tourkish Domination 5. The Liossia Habitants in the 1821 Revolution 6. Monuments of the Middle Ages D. SETTLEMENT ORGANIZATION OF THE MUNICIPALITY OF ANO LIOSSIA E. THE MUNICIPALITY OF ANO LIOSSIA - Stretch - Land Uses - Population - Local Self - Government OrganizationsA. THE MUNICIPALITY OF ANO LIOSSIA
The "Ano Liossia" Municipality is situated at the northewestern extremity of the Attikiís plain. Its admistrative boundaries reach up high the mountain of Parnitha all the way to the locations "Keramidi", "Dartheza", "Liougo". It borders eastward with the Municipallity of Acharnes, westward with the Municipality of Aspropyrgos and Phyli, northerward with the Municipality of Phyli and southward with the Municipality of Kamatero and the Municipality of Zephyri.
B. A VARIETY OF PLACES MAKE "ANO LIOSSIA" WORTH SEEING
Coming to our city is no doubt worth the pain.
You will find many opportunities for inexpensive shopping in classy stores which are the core of the ever - increasing commercial and economic activity. In the last section of the guide - book you can get the addresses and the telephone numbers of all the shops.
The two beatiful refreshment rooms will make both you and your company spend very nice moments.
The traditional small cafes, the ouzo bars and the titbits snacks (!) will make you reminince the old beatiful times.
There are many grill - houses, popular restaurants, nice cafeterias as well as spectacular entertaimment places.
The tourists will very much enjoy a visit to the Dartheza monastery, within a pineclad forest. Moreover, the picturesque chapel of St. George & Holy Trinity, built in the neighbouring mountain of Parnitha, will catch the visitorís attention.
Another sight worth seeing is the small chapel of St. John, at the northwestern part of the city.
The ancient wall situated westward of the Municipality is very important.
On 21st of May, when is the name - day of the St. Konstantin and Helen patron Saints of our City, there are many festivities and cultural expressions lasting many days.
C. A FLASHBACK ON THE HISTORY OF "ANO LIOSSIA" MUNICIPALITY
A brief retrospection of the history of the Municipality of Ano Liossia Area ( a summary from mr Kallieriís study)
1. In the Anclent Times
The first accounts of our area date back to the 7th century b-C when Athens was organized into a State - City after the small and big tiny, states were merged. There were three municipalities in the Mnicipalís district of Ano Liossia which made up the "Trikomia". They belonged to the Leonticia Race and to the Messogion Tritty ( in conformity with the klistheniís administrative organisation, 6th century ). Such are, Kropides and Pilikes.
Thycidides makes an account about kropia when, referring that on the way from the Thryassion to Acharnes one has to pass through Kropia and the Egaleo mountain is at your lefthand side. The archeologists believe that Eupirides are Northeasternward of Kropias ( midway between Agias Sotinas, Railway Station or even farther to the southeastern side ), and the Pilikes NW of Kropia somewhere towards the St.. John or even farther westward.
The above three Municipalities, together with the Peonides ( close to Parnithaís metochi ), the Cholides N.W. of Acharnes, the Aethalides ( near Chassia ) the Ekali and the Hyvades were making up the inland Tritty of the Leontida Race. Oei is belived to be at the N.E. boundary of Thryassion.
It is almost adjoining the western boundary of the municipal district of A. Liossia. It is a remarkable municipality, and one comes up with accounts about it in the scripts quite often till 200 p..C. It belonged to the Oenida Race, at the Trittyís seafront.
2. The Wall
The "Packet" stands its ground, mutilated as it is from the daily losses, at the western boundary of the municipal district. In 1920, it is described as the wall which was more than six kilometers long, made up of bulky stones, carved out and assembled together in a state - of - the - artway.
It was a masterpiece for its length, its size and its workmanship. This point of view was not shared by the Greeks only. STERLING DOW terms it as one of the most amazing and mysterious monuments of the Greek Antiquity which looks like the INKAís stronghold in Peruís SACSAHUAMAN.
There are many different opinions as to the time that the wall was erected. According to one of them it was built before the Peloponnesian war began back in 431 b.C.
The most prevalent view is that it was built in 337-6 under the Dominator Lykourgos rule in 337-6. Such a viewpoint was expressed by J.E. Jones, L. Sacket and G.W.J. Elliot who they relied upon the study of the erectionís technique.
The Archeological research registered also a rural residence of the classical years at the northern side of the railway track. From the oysters that were found there, it is concluded that the residence was inhabited for a while, approximately in the period of the Peloponnesian war and was re-inhabited in the second half of the 4th century b.C, when the wall was built, according to the most prevalent view point.
3. From the Ancient Times till the End of Frankish rule
There is a very long period before the Albanians Settled in this area. And this long period has to be divided into two sub-periods the point of separation being the years of the Jystinianís empire and, more precisely, the year 529 p.C.
In the process of time the sources run dry. The fact that we no more meet any specific accounts in historical scripts does in no way mean that the population disappeared, at least from Attica.
In the classical times Athens was first in importance, not only in the letters and arts, but also in Shipping, in the commerce, and the industry (handicraft).
Athens will be firstly supplanted as military force and as a nautical afterwards. Piraeus, as a port, will be of a less importance. The commerce and the industry will decline but it will take too long, centuries, before this happens: the reason why is that it will be treated favourably by both the he successors of Alexander the Great, with the exception of the behaviour of Philip E., and by the Romans ( the case of the capture by Sylla was not pursuited to completion ).
The populationís development allowed Athens to prosper even in the second century b.C.
The privileges of Athens were respected by Konstantine the Great and even by Theodossio the Great, Arkadio and Theodossio the Little, despite the measures that they took against the Olympic Games, the Elefsinaís Mysteries and the Nationalism in general.
The autonomy of Athens will be abolished in 529 b.c., by Justinian.
The Athens Philosophy, School will close down by economical force and this will mark its end as the city of wisdom. Three centuries of darkness will follow. This does not mean that Athens and Attica had been deserted, because in these dark centuries, too, Athens will give two Empresses, Irene and Theofano, as in the earlier times, Athinaida was baptized Evdokia and married Theodossio the Little.
Afterwards, the information about Athens and Attica will grow, especially during the 10th and the 11th century. A long period of western oocupation will follow which was known as the Frankish rule era. French domination ( 1205 - 1311), Catalonic ( 1311 - 1387 ), Florentin ( 1387 - 1456 ) during which the Venetians, too, prevailed if only for a short 8 - year period.
It was towards the end of the Catalonian rule, in particular the year 1983, that the first Albanians came down and settled.
4. Tourkish Domination " Ano Liossia " or " Liossiotika Kalivia " was most probably created some decades before the Revolution. The area of Liossia ( was contained ) in the wider area of Chassia from which it was detached when the Communities were established.
Travellers saved several descriptions for Attica in the 17th and 18th century. The descriptions of the courses followed to and from Chassia, such as, for example, from the Evlia Tsepeli ( 1667 ) but from his other contemporain or posterior writers there is no accound made for the the Liossiotika Kalivia.
5. The Liossia Habitants in the 1821 Revolution.
The Liossia Habitants were organized in the Revolution with Chassia Habitating, their fellow - Villagers, and their neighbours Menidi Habitants. They fought under the orders of the Captain Meletis Vassiliou and of the captains of the neighbouring area in various battles.
Many Liossia habitants were credited with higher and highest honours. 6. Monuments of the Middle Ages In the wider area of the Municipality of Ano Liossia there are :
1) Aghioi Saranta. An old Church, built upon new foundations. Many ancient sculptures were used to build it.
2) Prophet Helias : Northward to Aghioi Saranta, on a low hill. It is a small church ( 4,35 X 5,65 ) tile - roofed Basilic with semi - hexagonal arch in the sanctuary.
3) St. John the Theologos : It is situated on the road linking Chassia and Ano Liossia it used to be in the older times, the catholique of the monastery : it was a simple tile - roofed, small cathedral which was demolished around 1990 to be rebuilt as a cross - like catherdral with a dome.
4) St. George Keramidiou. It is located at a hillock named "Keramidi". It is a small ( 3,40 X 7 ) monoclite basilique with a narthex and a semi-circular sanctuary arch.
D. SETTLEMENT ORGANIZATION OF THE MUNICIPALITY OF ANO LIOSSIA
Early in our century, the old village of Ano Liossia numbered only a few houses, most of the stone-built designed in the traditional Albanian style. Despite that, in 1905, the settlement acquired a Street Layout encompassing an area of 4,000 sq. metres. It must be noted here that it is one of the first Greek settlements to have a Street layout. This layout, however, failed to be applied in many points, one hundred years later.
The settlement followed a slow development pace in the period spanning from the 19th century untill the war broke. Studying the 1998 map of the "German Mission" through the 1938ís air-photo, we draw the conclusion that the expansion of the settlement is relatively big but considered to be normal.
It denotes a sound settlement. The settlement was inhabited almost up to then by Albanians.
A significant turing point for the economic development of the then village of Ano Liossia, was the pleces of land given over to landless farmers in 1930 by the Ministry of Agriculture.
After the fights and the civil war were over, when the well-known climate of the immigrants inflow emerged, low-income internal immigrants began a gather there, buying farms and building arbitary houses.
In the beginning, they were building far away from the Albanian settlement, mainly in the area of Zofria. In the course of time, however, and as the inflow of the internal immigrants kept increacing, an entirely new city was created around the old settlement.
In 1970, an effort was made to organize it from a streetís layout point of view, by incorporating in the Urban Plan an additional 900,000sq. metres, thus making a total stretch, within the Urban Plan, of 1,200,000 sq. metres.
Nevertheless, the parcelling-out of the farming land kept going on and its conversion into "building lands" turned out to be one of the major economical resources of the old houses. At the same time, the arbitrary building activity outside the Urban Plan was still going on.
The lack of any settlement policy, on the one hand, and the relatively cheap land, led thousands of families to the emergency choice of the "arbitrary", in the area of Ano Liossia, as was also the case, of course, in ohter areas of Attica.
The significant innovation, however, was made in the period 1985-1987, when the entire built-up area acquired a Street Layout, by being fully incorporated into the Urban Plan. Thus, the settlement area of Ano Liossia reached 7,500,000 sq. metres. The incorporation into the Urban Plan was validated with the Act 1337/83, known as the Urban Plan Restructuring Comporation ( UPRC ).
The Urban Plan Studies, despite the minor imperfections they may have, and the various problems that they create, are today the dominant development tool of the Mynicipality of Ano Liossia.
For this reason, the efforts towards applying it is a concern to both the Municipalityís Administration and the worry to every resident of Ano - Liossia. It makes sense, though, to feel like that, because everybody is aware that the areas required for roads, schools, childrenís play-grounds, spuares and other common-use areas cannot be freed unless an Urbal Plan is impemented.
The reasoning of the Act 1337/83 with the disposition of the contribution in terms of land and money has been made acceptaple by the over-powering majority of the hapitants-owners of the Municipality of Ano Liossia.
The first results have, in other words, been evident and little by little the common-used and the public benefit areas are being freed and appropriately shaped-up. But the new houses, too, which are now built are nice-looking and modern since they are being built under a licence which implies that they have to meet certain scientific criteria and, in any way, they no more have to be made in secrecy out of the policemanís fear...
E. THE MUNICIPALITY OF ANO LIOSSIA
- Stretch - Land Uses
The Municipality of Ano Liossia has an area of 38,500,000 sq.m.. The table which follows shows the allocation of this strech by use of land.
APPROXIMATE ARBA OF THE LAND USES
OF THE "ANO LIOSSIA" MUNICIPALITY
KIND OF LAND USE AREA IN STREMMAS *
FORESTAL STRECH 18,450
RURAL STRETCH 3,250
STRETCH AROUND THE CITY 2,750
URBAN STRETCH 8,100
OTHER USES 5,500
TOTAL STRETCH 38,500
* stremma = 1,000 sq. metres
A fact that must be given special consideration is the large Forest area northward of our city. This forest, which forms an integral part with the forest of the mountain of Parnitha, is an exquisite piece of Attica which runs an immediate risk from fires, from the arbitrary builiding, the acid rain and our indifference. This is why our Municipality is preparing a programme and a campaign to protect it.
- Population The population today ( 1994 ) must be close to 30,000 habitants. The change of the population in the course of time is show in the folowing table.
1844 1861 1879 1920 1928 1940 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 177 227 403 1019 1142 1602 1660 3348 11388 16862 21397- Local Self - Government Organizations The Municipality of Ano Liossia is one of the most active Self - Government Organizations. It is the main fulcrum of our cityís development. It has got rationalized Technical and Administrative Departments as well as a three Municipal Comporations : The Municipal Enterprise of Technical Projects, the Municipal Enterprise of Developments, and the Municipal Radio Broadcasting Enterprise.
The Municipalityís Departments are housed in the Municipal Mansion ( Spuare Iroon Polytechniou Str, Area Code 13 341 ). A complete catalogue of our departments along with the telephone numbers is included in the third part of this guide-book.